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1Here we see an unfortunate collision between two common usages of the term “Internet service provider.” Obviously ISPs are already Internet Service Providers. But they are providers of Layer 3 services, meaning basic network connectivity. What we are talking about throughout this article are Layer 7 services, or what are sometimes more properly called Internet Application Services. It isn’t just the Internet functionality that has arisen chaotically; it’s also the nomenclature.

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This web site has been created based exclusively on the use of Halaal Software and Halaal Internet Application Services. It is part of the By* Federation of Autonomous Libre Services which in turn are part of the Halaal/Libre By* Digitial Ecosystem which incorporate the following software components: